Journalism ethics define the moral rights and responsibilities that apply to the challenges that journalists face in their work. They refer to these principles of good practice as a “professional code of ethics” or “canons of good journalism”.
These ground rules spell out the journalistic practice for responsible and reliable journalism which can be applied to news production.
This ethical framework aims to improve the integrity of the journalist as well as the quality of news reporting. These rules are freely available so that the public can know what to expect of journalists in their work.
- 1 Law or ethics
- 2 Five important journalistic values
- 3 News values as ethical standards
- 4 News organisations as guardians of journalism ethics
Law or ethics
Some of these principles are enshrined in and controlled by national and international law. These are based on universal values, such as respecting humanity, truthfulness, freedom from violence and solidarity between people.
However, everything that is legal is not necessarily good practice. So, more detailed ethical codes of conduct and other guidelines have evolved, for instance, in Western journalism.
The basic codes and canons usually appear in statements drafted by:
- professional journalism associations, such as trade unions
- individual print, broadcast and online news organisations
Journalism ethics, therefore, have a range of aspects. These include instructions or directives, professional standards, as well as basic guidelines on good manners and politeness.
Some journalistic codes of ethics, notably the European ones, are concerned to avoid discrimination. They refer to issues, such as race, religion, sexual orientation, and physical or mental disabilities.
A code of ethics provides journalists with a framework from which they can monitor and correct their behaviour.
The rise of digital and social media and the increase in citizen journalism is eroding some of these principles. This is making it necessary to reconsider how media law and good ethics can be preserved and responsible journalism maintained.
Five important journalistic values
Journalists should be:
- Honest – not make up or share news that gives a wrong impression of events.
- Independent – avoid topics in which they have a conflict of interest.
- Fair – avoid publishing information if it is undertaken with a bad intention.
- Productive – work hard to try to gather all the relevant facts.
- Proud of their work – be able to accept all credit for their work, good or bad.
News values as ethical standards
Some news organisations use the term News Values to describe ethics in journalism. However, this term is more widely used to describe the ingredients that make up an interesting and eye-catching news story.
News organisations as guardians of journalism ethics
Reputable news organisations adopt a code of journalism ethics which they expect from their employees. So, to check out their reliability, simply read their statement of ethics and good practice. All you have to do is use your favourite search engine to look up a news source (The Washington Post, for instance) and its ethics.
Here are a few for starters:
AP is an American not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. It is among the largest and most trusted source of independent news and information in the world. Associated Press emphasise their commitment to five so-called news values. Put simply, this is a list of “do’s” and “don’ts”:
- no plagiarising
- not misidentifying or misrepresenting themselves to get a story
- avoiding conflicts of interest that may compromise accuracy
- no paying newsmakers for interviews
- maintaining their commitment to fairness.
Reuters, who are owned by Thomson Reuters, have their headquarters in London. Like AP, they are among the largest and most reliable international news organisations worldwide. Their Handbook of Journalism sets out their commitment to a code of standards and values.
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
The BBC is a public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in London. It is the world’s oldest and largest national broadcaster.
The BBC lists the following values:
- Truth and accuracy
- Impartiality and diversity of opinion
- Editorial integrity and independence
- Serving the public interest
- Balancing the right to report with respect for privacy
- Balancing the right to report with protection of the vulnerable
- Safeguarding children
- Being accountable to the audience
This list appears on the BBC website – Editorial Guidelines.
National Public Radio
NPR is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organisation based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicate for a network of over a thousand public radio stations in the United States. You can view their code of practice in their Ethics Handbook.
New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Here are their Standards and Ethics.
Los Angeles Times
Another American newspaper is the Los Angeles Times. It is is a daily newspaper which is published in Los Angeles, California. Their Ethics Guidelines places the responsibility on every staff member to make sure their news and information is of the highest quality.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. Along with its sister papers, The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, it is part of the Guardian Media Group. All the papers are held in trust to secure their financial and editorial independence. Their Editorial Code states: “A newspaper’s primary office is the gathering of news. At the peril of its soul it must see that the supply is not tainted.”
The International Fact-Checking Network Code of Principles
The IFCN is an umbrella organisation dedicated to bringing together fact-checkers worldwide. Their Code of Principles lists five commitments to an open and honest corrections policy of non-partisanship, fairness and transparency.
So draw your own conclusions. What does it tell you if a news organisation does not publish its ethics for all to access?